Cytoplasm is the area between the cell membrane and nuclear envelope, as you can see to the left. The cytoplasm contains many different cell organelles. These organelles are in gelatin-like fluid called cytosol. Salt, minerals and organic molecules are dissolved in cytosol. Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, and others are found in this cytosol fluid.
This organelle is found in both plants and animals. The mitochondria is found in the cytoplasm area and in the cytosol. The mitochondria is the site of chemical reactions. These chemical reactions transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP (adenosine triphosphate). There are four major sections of the mitochondria, the inner membrane, outer membrane, cristae and matrix. The outer membrane is smooth and is a boundary between the mitochondria and cytosol, and the inner membrane is made up of folds, as you can see in the picture to the left. These folds in the inner membrane are known as the cristae. The cristae provides more space for chemical reactions to take place in the mitochondria. Because mitochondria have their own DNA, the mitochondria only arise when existing ones grow and divide. It works with the whole cell for it provides energy for the cell.
The ribosomes are not surrounded by a membrane. Each one of theses ribosomes are an assemblage of proteins and RNA. Some ribosomes are attached to another organelle called endoplasmic reticulum or they can be free. Because ribosomes attach to the endoplasmic reticulum they work with them well. The main function of ribosomes build proteins that are used in the cytosol, this is called protein synthesis.
The endoplasmic reticulum is also called E.R. for short. The E.R. "is a system of membranous tubules and sacs." (Modern Biology Textbook) The E.R. primarily is a intracellular highway. Which is a path where molecules move from one place to another in the cell. There are two different kinds of endoplasmic reticulum, the rough and smooth E.R. The rough E.R. is when the ribosomes connect to the E.R. The rough E.R. makes larger amounts of proteins to be transported out of the cell or inserted into the cell membrane. The smooth E.R. is when it is not covered in ribosomes, it is involved with the sythesis of steriods in gland cells. It also is the regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells. Another thing that the endoplasmic reticulum also regulates the breakdown of toxic substances by liver cell. The endoplasmic reticulum works with the ribosomes, especially when in rough E.R's
The golgi apparatus is the processing, packing and secreting organelle in the cell. The golgi apparatus is like the endoplasmic reticulum because it's a system of membranes. "the Golgi apparatus is appears as a series of flattened sacs with a characteristic convex shape in the cytosol." (Modern Biology Textbook). The golgi apparatus works closely with the endoplasmic reticulum, it modifies the larger amount of proteins that the rough E.R. has made.
Vacuoles are areas in the cytoplasm that appear to be empty. They are usally found in plants. In plant cells they store metabolic wastes and enzymes. In animals they are smaller and less important. When the cell ages the vacuoles get larger. So in mature cells the vacuols occupy most of the cell. Some vacuoles can occupy 90% of a plant cells volume. The purpose of vacuols in plant cells is to store metabolic wastes and enzymes. Some of the wastes in the vacuoles are toxic and are needed to be kept away from the rest of the cell. Vacuoles sometime protect the cell in other ways, the toxics in the vacuoles provide a defense againest plant eating animals. In animals they are smaller and less important.
Lysosomes are spherical organelles that are small. Lysosomes enclose hydrolytic enzymes within a single membrane. Hydrolytic enzymes are able to digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Hydrolytic enzymes can also digest old organelles as well as bacteria that has been ingested by a cell and viruses. Lysosomes are mainly found in animal, fungi and protists cells, they are rare in plant cells.
The cytoskeleton in many cells the structure. The cytoskeleton is a network of long protein strands in the cytosol. Cytoskeletons are not surrounded by membranes, like ribosomes. The cytoskeleton helps with the movement of organelles within the cytosol, along with providing support. Cytoskeletons have two major components, microfilaments and micotubules. Microfilaments are made of threads of proteins called actin. The actin molecules link together to form a polymer chain. Microfilaments participate wit the cell movement, they also help in the contraction of the muscle cells. The second part of cytoskeletons are the microtubules, microtubules are the largest strands in the cytoskeleton, they are hollow tubes. Microtubules extend out to from a central point near the nucleus to different sites that are near the cell membrane. "When a cell is about to divide, bundles of microtubules come together and extend across the cell. These bundles, known as spindle fibers are thick enough to be visible with a light microscope." (Modern Biology Textbook) These spindle fibers they are talking about help in the movement of chromosomes, during cell division. This only happens when cell divison is accuring, when cell division is complete the spindle fibers are disassembld and microtubules return to their other task, supporting the cell.
Centrioles are only found in animal cells. Centrioles function is cell division. They have a "cylindrical structure" that are build from 9 microtubules, each is attached to 2 partial microtubules. Centrioles function in the animal cell is to line up the chromosomes inside the cell. They also pull the chromosomes apart during cell division. They are found in the centrosome, and they are positioned so they are right angles of each other.
They are small vesicles that are found around the cell, in the cytoplasm. They are bound by a single membrane, they also are filled with enzymes. These enzymes are digestive enzymes and break down toxic materials. Peroxisomes absorb the nutrients that the cell aquires and break down Hydrogen Peroxicide.
Chloroplasts are only in plants. Their structure consists of a outer membrane, inner membrane, stromal lamellae, thylakoid, stroma, and starch/sugar. The function of the chloroplast is to convert sun's energy to sugar. The chloroplast works with the sun to perform their job.